I have done some searching and I find advice to either turn up or turn down the Arc Force, but can't find a good explanation of what Arc Force actually does.

From the manual:

"Controls the arc response when an arc is held short and voltage begins to drop. Arc
force automatically compensates by modifying the volt/amp curve to maintain the
energy needed to weld. Represented as a percent of available amperage."

I don't fully understand how the percentage effects how the arc functions, does anyone understand that who could explain it?

How does this pertain to different rod, say for 6011, 6013, 7018, 7024 ?