The Functioning Of Electric Motors And Generators
Electricity forms an important part of our daily
lives. It is necessary to know the functioning of electric motors
and generators that help in making our lives very comfortable.
There are two types of electric motors - AC or alternating current and DC or direct current motors. They are used in cars, homes and industries. Both these motors have different uses. Technically there is only a little difference, but it is enough to make one better for use than the other. DC motors were the earliest type of electric motor to be used. They have constant current. There are two types- with brushes or brushless. Brush DC motors have rings which are used to conduct the current and form magnetic drives which powers the rotor. Brushless DC motors have a switch that produces the magnetic drive to power the rotor. DC current has its limitations. It cannot work for a long period of time. Power can also be lost during transmission.
AC current is used in single phase AC motors and is effective when used for systems that require a lot of power to start. It is also able to have high starting power that can be transmitted to lower levels for overall power. They have single phase, two phase and three phase motors.
Since electricity is very important in our daily
lives we need generators to supply current when there
is a power breakdown. They are available in different sizes which
have different functions. They produce electricity by converting mechanical
energy from gas, wind, steam, water and diesel. The energy available
in these sources is undergoes electromagnetic induction and is turned
into electrical energy by the use of a motor.
The type of generator that is generally used uses gasoline as the energy source. It has
a combustion engine. The generator is turned on by using a switch,
a cord that is pulled or a key. The generator has AC voltage and the
amount of electricity that it can produce is limited. The amount of
power that is generated is known as watt.
The generator should be chosen according to the need of the individual. It is needed wherever uninterrupted power supply is essential, as in a hospital. It can also be used when power goes off in a home. It can be used for camping, boating and in amusement areas. The noise level should be kept low so that it does not disturb other people. It will also be useful during emergency situations like floods and hurricanes.
In areas where construction is being done, an industrial
electric power generator will be the right one to use. A portable generator will also be very useful at construction sites.
The electric generator puts out
power that is called 'rated power'. The rated power
is generally 90% of the power that the generator can produce. Care
should be taken to see to it that it does not work for more than 30
minutes at a time. It has two types of loads - the resistive and the
reactive. The resistive type of load is used for toasters, ovens,
light bulbs, televisions and other home appliances which do not have
electric motors. The reactive type of load is used with appliances
that have electric motors such as the refrigerator and the air conditioner.
For the sake of safety it is necessary to keep
the generators in an open area and not inside a home, a garage
or the basement of a house. A space of three to four feet should be
left free around the area where the generator is kept.
You should buy the right type of generator
for use and should follow the instructions given in the manual to
know its function and use it in the right way.